Starch

Starch is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water. Starch (in particular cornstarch) is used in cooking for thickening sauces. In industry, it is used in the manufacture of adhesives, paper, and textiles. It is a white powder, and is tasteless and odorless.

Biochemically, starch is a combination of two polymeric carbohydrates (polysaccharides) called amylose and amylopectin. Amylose is constituted by glucose monomer units joined to one another head-to-tail forming alpha-1,4 linkages. Amylopectin differs from amylose in that branching occurs, with an alpha-1,6 linkage every 24-30 glucose monomer units. The overall structure of amylopectin is not that of a linear polysaccharide chain since two glucose units frequently form a branch point, so the result is the coiled molecule most suitable for storage in starch grains. Both amylopectin and amylose are polymers of glucose, and a typical starch polymer chain consists of around 2500 glucose molecules in their varied forms of polymerisation. In general, starches have the formula (C6H10O5)n, where "n" denotes the total number of glucose monomer units.

Structurally, the starch forms clusters of linked linear polymers, where the alpha-1,4 linked chains form columns of glucose units which branch regularly at the alpha-1,6 links. The relative content of amylose and amylopectin varies between species, and between different cultivars of the same species. For example, high-amylose corn (maize) has starch consisting of about 85% amylose, which is the linear constituent of starch, while waxy corn starch is more than 99% amylopectin, or branched starch. The primary function of starch in plants, is to act as an energy storage molecule for the organism. In plants simple sugars are linked into starch molecules by specialized cellular organs called amyloplasts.

Starches are insoluble in water. They can be digested by hydrolysis, catalyzed by enzymes called amylases, which can break the glycosidic bonds between the 'alpha-glucose' components of the starch polysaccharide. Humans and other animals have amylases, so they can digest starch. Digestion of starches consists of the process of the cleavage of the starch molecules back into their constituent simple sugar units by the action of the amylases. The resulting sugars are then processed by further enzymes (such as maltase) in the body, in the same manner as other sugars in the diet.

___________________

Go to Start | This article uses material from the Wikipedia