Hydrophobic forces

Hydrophobic forces are not actually bonds, so this list has four items, but still just three bond types. In a way hydrophobic forces are the negation of the hydrogen bonds of a polar solute, usually water, enclosing a nonpolar molecule. For a polar solute like water, it is energetically unfavourable to "waste" a possible hydrogen bond by exposing it towards a nonpolar molecule. Thus, water will arrange itself around any nonpolar molecule in such a way that no hydrogen bonds point towards that molecule. This results in a higher order, compared to "freely" moving water, which leads to a lower entropy level and is thus energetically unfavourable. If there is more than one nonpolar molecule in the solute, it is favourable for the nonpolar molecules to aggregate in one place, reducing their surrounding, ordered "shell" of water to a minimal surface. Also, in large molecules, such as proteins, the hydrophobic (nonpolar) parts of the molecule will tend to turn towards the inside, while the polar parts will tend to turn towards the surface of the molecule.

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