Bioenergetics of photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a physiological phenomenon that converts solar energy into photochemical energy. This physiological phenomenon may be described thermodynamically in terms of changes in energy, entropy and free energy. The energetics of photosynthesis, driven by light, causes a change in entropy that in turn yields a usable source of energy for the plant.

The following chemical equation summarizes the products and reactants of carbon reduction in the typical green photosynthesizing plant:

CO2 + H2O --> O2 + (CH2O) + 112 kcal/mol CO2

On earth, there are two sources of free energy: light energy from the sun, and terrestrial sources, including volcanoes, hot springs and radioactivity of certain elements. The biochemical value of electromagnetic radiation has led plants to use the free energy from the sun in particular. Visible light, which is used specifically by green plants to photosynthesize, may result in the formation of electronically excited states of certain substances called pigments. For example, Chlorophyll a is a pigment which acts as a catalyst, converting solar energy into photochemical energy that is necessary for photosynthesis.

With the presence of solar energy, the plant has a usable source of energy, which is termed the free energy (G) of the system. However, thermal energy is not completely interconvertible, which means that the character of the solar energy may lead to the limited convertibility of it into forms that may be used by the plant. This relates back to the work of Josiah Willard Gibbs: the change in free energy (ΔrG) is related to both the change in entropy (ΔrS) and the change in enthalpy (ΔrH) of the system (Rabinowitch).

Gibbs free energy equation: ΔrG = ΔrH - TΔrS... where ΔH is enthalpy, ΔS is entropy, and T is temperature.

Past experiments have shown that the total energy produced by photosynthesis is 112 kcal/mol. However in the experiment, the free energy due to light was 120 kcal/mol. An overall loss of 8 kcal/mol was due to entropy, as described by Gibbs equation (Govindjee). In other words, since the usable energy of the system is related directly to the entropy and temperature of the system, a smaller amount of thermal energy is available for conversion into usable forms of energy (including mechanical and chemical) when entropy is great (Rabinowitch). This concept relates back to the second law of thermodynamics in that an increase in entropy is needed to convert light energy into energy suitable for the plant.

Overall, in conjunction with the oxidation-reduction reaction nature of the photosynthesis equation, and the interrelationships between entropy and enthalpy, energy in a usable form will be produced by the photosynthesizing green plant.

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