Carotenoids are organic pigments that are naturally occurring in plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some types of fungus and some bacteria. There are over 600 known carotenoids; they are split into two classes, xanthophylls and carotenes.


Carotenoids are characterized by a large (35-40 carbon atoms) polyene chain, sometimes terminated by rings. Carotenoids where some of the double bonds have been oxidized such as lutein and zeaxanthin, are known as xanthophylls; the un-oxidized carotenoids such as alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and lycopene are known as carotenes. Probably the most well-known carotenoid is the one that gives this group its name, carotene, found in carrots and responsible for their bright orange colour.

Their color, ranging from pale yellow through bright orange to deep red, is directly linked to their structure. The double carbon-carbon bonds interact with each other in a process called conjugation. As the number of double bonds increases, the wavelength of the absorbed light increases, giving the compound an increasingly red appearance.

Physiological effects

In photosynthetic organisms, carotenoids play a vital role in the photosynthetic reaction centre. They either participate in the energy-transfer process, or protect the reaction center from auto-oxidation. In non-photosynthetic organisms, carotenoids have been linked to oxidation-preventing mechanisms.

Carotenoids have many physiological functions. Given their structure (above) carotenoids are efficient free-radical scavengers, and they enhance the vertebrate immune system. Consequently, epidemiological studies have shown that people with high beta-carotene intake and high plasma levels of beta-carotene have a significantly reduced risk of lung cancer. But studies of supplementation with large doses of beta-carotene in smokers have shown an increase in cancer risk (possibly because excessive beta-carotene results in breakdown products that reduce plasma Vitamin A and worsen the lung cell proliferation induced by smoke). Similar results have been found in other animals.

Animals are incapable of synthesizing carotenoids, and must obtain them through their diet, yet they are common and often in ornamental features. For example, the pink colour of flamingos and salmon, and the red colouring of lobsters are caused by carotenoids. Carotenoids are used in ornamental traits because, given their physioloigcal and chemical properties, they can be used as honest indicators of individual health, and hence they can be used by animals when selecting potential mates.

Aroma chemicals

Products of carotenoid degradation such as ionones, damascones, and damascenones are also important fragrance chemicals that are used extensively in the perfumes and fragrance industry. Both beta-Damascenone and beta-Ionone although low in concentration in rose distillates are the key odor contributing compounds to flowers. In fact, the sweet floral smells present in black tea, aged tobacco, grape, and many fruits are due to the aromatics compounds resulting from carotenoid breakdown.


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